Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Segment and geographic informationOperating segments are defined as components of an entity for which separate financial information is available and that is regularly reviewed by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer is the Company’s CODM. The CODM reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of making operating decisions, allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. As such, the Company has determined that it operates in one reportable and operating segment. During the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Company generated $12,823, $2,741 and $1,213 of revenue outside of the United States, respectively. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company did not have material assets located outside of the United States.

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents.

The Company has marketing fund restricted cash, which can only be used for activities that promote the Company’s brands. In July 2022, the Company issued a $750 standby letter of credit to a third-party financing company, who provides loans to the Company's qualified franchisees. The standby letter of credit is contingent upon the failure of franchisees to perform according to the terms of underlying contracts with the third party. The Company deposited cash in a restricted account as collateral for the standby letter of credit. In addition, the Company, as a guarantor, is required to recognize, at inception of the guaranty, a liability for the fair value of the obligation undertaken in issuing the guarantee. See Note 17 for further discussion of such obligations guaranteed.

Restricted cash was $5,381 and $1,427 at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively

Concentration of credit risk—Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, accounts receivable and notes receivable. The Company maintains its cash with high-credit quality financial institutions. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash that total $33,961 and $12,852, respectively, on deposit with high-credit quality financial institutions that exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any loss as a result of these or previous similar deposits. In addition, the Company closely monitors the extension of credit to its franchisees while maintaining allowances for potential credit losses.

Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts – Accounts receivable primarily consist of amounts due from franchisees and vendors. These receivables primarily relate to royalties, advertising contributions, equipment and product sales, training, vendor commissions and other miscellaneous charges. Receivables are unsecured; however, the franchise agreements provide the Company the right to withdraw funds from the franchisee’s bank account or to terminate the franchise for nonpayment. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable balance and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a number of factors, including evidence of the franchisee’s ability to comply with credit terms, economic conditions and historical receivables. Account balances are written off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $865 and $2,193, respectively.

Inventories – Inventories are comprised of finished goods including equipment and branded merchandise primarily held for sale to franchisees. Cost is determined using the first-in-first-out method. Management analyzes obsolete, slow-moving and excess merchandise to determine adjustments that may be required to reduce the carrying value of such inventory to the lower of cost or net realizable value. Write-down of obsolete or slow-moving and excess inventory charges are included in costs of product revenue in the consolidated statements of operations.

Deferred offering costs – Deferred offering costs, primarily consisted of legal, accounting and other fees relating to the Company’s initial public offering. Upon consummation of the IPO in July 2021, total deferred offering costs of $7,511 were reclassified to additional paid-in capital within stockholders' equity and recorded against the proceeds of the IPO.

Property and equipment, net – Property and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is recognized on a straight-line method, based on the following estimated useful lives:


Furniture and equipment

5 years

Computers and software

3-5 years


5 years

Leasehold improvements

Lesser of useful life or lease term

Software consists primarily of costs associated with web development projects. The Company capitalizes eligible costs to acquire, develop, or modify digital platforms that are incurred subsequent to the preliminary project stage. Depreciation of these assets begins upon the initial usage of the digital platforms.

The cost and accumulated depreciation of assets sold or retired are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in the results of operations during the period of sale or disposal. Costs for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Repairs and maintenance costs for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 were insignificant.

Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets – Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of goodwill and certain trademarks.

Goodwill – The Company tests for impairment of goodwill annually or sooner whenever events or circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired. Goodwill has been assigned to reporting units for purposes of impairment testing. The Company’s reporting units are the brand names under which it sells franchises. The annual impairment test is performed as of the first day of the Company’s fourth quarter. The annual impairment test begins with a qualitative assessment, where qualitative factors and their impact on critical inputs are assessed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If the Company determines that a reporting unit has an indication of impairment based on the qualitative assessment, it is required to perform a quantitative assessment. The Company generally determines the estimated fair value using a discounted cash flow approach, giving consideration to the market valuation approach. If the carrying value exceeds the estimate of fair value, a write-down is recorded. The Company calculates impairment as the excess of the carrying value of goodwill over the estimated fair value. During the third quarter of 2022, the Company determined that the AKT reporting unit had an indication of impairment based on a qualitative assessment and performed a quantitative assessment. For further discussion, see Note 7. As a result, the Company recognized an impairment loss to write-off the goodwill associated with the AKT reporting unit. There were no further impairments recognized over the remainder of 2022. There were no impairments recorded for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

Trademarks – The Company tests for impairment of trademarks with an indefinite life annually or sooner whenever events or circumstances indicate that trademarks might be impaired. The Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the trademarks is less than the carrying amount. In the absence of sufficient qualitative factors, trademark impairment is determined utilizing a two-step analysis. The two-step analysis involves comparing the fair value to the carrying value of the trademarks. The Company determines the estimated fair value using a relief from royalty approach. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, the Company impairs the trademarks to their fair value. There were no impairments recorded for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.

Definite-lived intangible assets – Definite-lived intangible assets, consisting of franchise agreements, reacquired franchise rights, customer relationships, non-compete agreements, certain trademarks and web design and domain, are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated remaining economic lives. Deferred video production costs are amortized on an accelerated basis. Amortization expense related to intangible assets is included in depreciation and amortization expense. The recoverability of the carrying values of all intangible assets with finite lives is evaluated when events or changes in circumstances indicate an asset’s value may be impaired. Impairment testing is based on a review of forecasted undiscounted operating cash flows. If such analysis indicates that the carrying value of these assets is not recoverable, the carrying value of such assets is reduced to fair value, which is determined based on discounted future cash flows, through a charge to the consolidated statements of operations. Definite-lived intangible asset impairments of $280, $118 and $0 were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Definite-lived intangible asset impairments during the year ended December 31, 2022, related to trademark and franchise agreements of the AKT reporting unit for which the carrying value was deemed not recoverable. Definite-lived intangible asset impairments during the year ended December 31, 2021, related to company-owned transition studio assets for which the carrying value was deemed not recoverable.

Revenue recognition – The Company’s contracts with customers consist of franchise agreements with franchisees. The Company also enters into agreements to sell merchandise and equipment, training, on-demand video services and membership to company-owned transition studios. The Company’s revenues primarily consist of franchise license revenues, other franchise related revenues including equipment and merchandise sales and training revenue. In addition, the Company earns on-demand revenue, service revenue and other revenue.

Each of the Company’s primary sources of revenue and their respective revenue policies are discussed further below.

Franchise revenue

The Company enters into franchise agreements for each franchised studio. The Company’s performance obligation under the franchise license is granting certain rights to access the Company’s intellectual property; all other services the Company provides under the franchise agreement are highly interrelated, not distinct within the contract, and therefore accounted for as a single performance obligation, which is satisfied over the term of each franchise agreement. Those services include initial development, operational training, preopening support and access to the Company’s technology throughout the franchise term. Fees generated related to the franchise license include development fees, royalty fees, marketing fees, technology fees and transfer fees, which are discussed further below. Variable fees are not estimated at contract inception, and are recognized as revenue when invoiced, which occurs monthly. The Company has concluded that its agreements do not contain any financing components.

Franchise development fee revenue – The Company’s franchise agreements typically operate under ten-year terms with the option to renew for up to two additional five-year successor terms. The Company determined the renewal options are neither qualitatively nor quantitatively material and do not represent a material right. Initial franchise fees are non-refundable and are typically collected upon signing of the franchise agreement. Initial franchise fees are recorded as deferred revenue when received and are recognized on a straight-line basis over the franchise life, which the Company has determined to be ten years, as the Company fulfills its promise to grant the franchisee the rights to access and benefit from the Company’s intellectual property and to support and maintain the intellectual property.

The Company may enter into an area development agreement with certain franchisees. Area development agreements are for a territory in which a developer has agreed to develop and operate a certain number of franchise locations over a stipulated period of time. The related territory is unavailable to any other party and is no longer marketed to future franchisees by the Company. Depending on the number of studios purchased under franchise agreements or area development agreements, the initial franchise fee ranges from $60 (single studio) to $350 (ten studios) and is paid to the Company when a franchisee signs the area development agreement. Area development fees are initially recorded as deferred revenue. The development fees are allocated to the number of studios purchased under the development agreement. The revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the franchise life for each studio under the development agreement. Development fees and franchise fees are generally recognized as revenue upon the termination of the development agreement with the franchisee.

The Company may enter into master franchise agreements with master franchisees, under which the master franchisee sells licenses to franchisees in one or more countries outside of North America. The master franchise agreements generally provide a ten-year period under which the master franchisee may sell licenses. The master franchise agreement term ends on the earlier of the expiration or termination of the last franchise agreement sold by the master franchisee. Initial master franchise fees are recorded as deferred revenue when received and are recognized on a straight-line basis over 20 years.

Franchise royalty fee revenue – Royalty revenue represents royalties earned from each of the franchised studios in accordance with the franchise disclosure document and the franchise agreement for use of the brands’ names, processes and procedures. The royalty rate in the franchise agreement is typically 7% of the gross sales of each location operated by each franchisee. Royalties are billed on a monthly basis. The royalties are entirely related to the Company’s performance obligation under the franchise agreement and are billed and recognized as franchisee sales occur.

Technology fees – The Company may provide access to third-party or other proprietary technology solutions to the franchisees for a fee. The technology solution may include various software licenses for statistical tracking, scheduling, allowing club members to record their personal workout statistics, music and technology support. The Company bills and recognizes the technology fee as earned each month as the technology solution service is performed.

Transfer fees – Transfer fees are paid to the Company when one franchisee transfers a franchise agreement to a different franchisee. Transfer fees are recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the term of the new or assumed franchise agreement, unless the original franchise agreement for an existing studio is terminated, in which case the transfer fee is recognized immediately.

Training revenue – The Company provides coach training services either through direct training of the coaches who are hired by franchisees or by providing the materials and curriculum directly to the franchisees who utilize the materials to train their hired coaches. Direct training fees are recognized over time as training is provided. Training fees for materials and curriculum are recognized at the point in time of delivery of the materials.

The Company also offers coach training and final coach certification through online classes. Fees received by the Company for online class training are recognized as revenue over time for the 12-month period that the Company is obligated to provide access to the online training content.

Franchise marketing fund revenue

Franchisees are required to pay marketing fees of 2% of their gross sales. The marketing fees are collected by the Company on a monthly basis and are to be used for the advertising, marketing, market research, product development, public relations programs and materials deemed appropriate to benefit brands. The Company’s promise to provide the marketing services funded through the marketing fund is considered a component of the Company’s performance obligation to grant the franchise license. The Company bills and recognizes marketing fund fees as revenue each month as gross sales occur.

Equipment and merchandise revenue –

The following revenues are generated as a result of transactions with or related to the Company’s franchisees.

Equipment revenue – The Company sells authorized equipment to franchisees to be used in the franchised studios. Certain franchisees may prepay for equipment, and in that circumstance, the revenue is deferred until delivery. Equipment revenue is recognized when control of the equipment is transferred to the franchisee, which is at the point in time when delivery and installation of the equipment at the studio is complete.

Merchandise revenue – The Company sells branded and non-branded merchandise to franchisees for retail sales to customers at studios. For branded merchandise sales, the performance obligation is satisfied at the point in time of shipment of the ordered branded merchandise to the franchisee. For such branded merchandise sales, the Company is the principal in the transaction as it controls the merchandise prior to it being delivered to the franchisee. The Company records branded merchandise revenue and related costs upon shipment on a gross basis. Customers have the right to return and/or receive credit for defective merchandise. Returns and credit for defective merchandise were insignificant for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.

For certain non-branded merchandise sales, the Company earns a commission to facilitate the transaction between the franchisee and the supplier. For such non-branded merchandise sales, the Company is the agent in the transaction, facilitating the transaction between the franchisee and the supplier, as the Company does not obtain control of the non-branded merchandise during the order fulfillment process. The Company records non-branded merchandise commissions revenue at the time of shipment.

Other revenue –

Service revenue – Historically, the revenue from company-owned transition studios has been very limited as the Company typically only owns a small number of studios and only for a short period of time pending the resale of the license to a franchisee. For company-owned transition studios, the Company’s distinct performance obligation is to provide fitness classes to the customer. The company-owned studios sell memberships by individual class and by class packages. Revenue from the sale of classes and class packages for a specified number of classes are recognized over time as the customer attends and utilizes the classes. Revenues from the sale of class packages for an unlimited number of classes are recognized over time on a straight-line basis over the duration of the contract period.

On-demand revenue – The Company grants a subscriber access to an online hosted platform, which contains a library of web-based classes that is continually updated, through monthly or annual subscription packages. Revenue is recognized over time on a straight-line basis over the subscription period.

Other revenue – The Company earns commission income from certain of its franchisees’ use of certain preferred vendors. In these arrangements, the Company is the agent as it is not primarily responsible for fulfilling the orders. Commissions are earned and recognized at the point in time the vendor ships the product to franchisees. In addition, the Company grants vendors access to franchisees' members to provide certain services to the members for a fee. Revenue is recognized over time on a straight-line basis over the access period.

Sales taxes, value added taxes and other taxes that are collected in connection with revenue transactions are withheld and remitted to the respective taxing authorities. As such, these taxes are excluded from revenue. The Company elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer the goods. Therefore, shipping and handling fees that are billed to franchisees are recognized in revenue and the associated shipping and handling costs are recognized in cost of product sold as soon as control of the goods transfers to the franchisee.

Credit Losses – The Company’s accounts and notes receivable are recorded at net realizable value, which includes an appropriate allowance for estimated credit losses. The estimate of credit losses is based upon historical bad debts, current receivable balances, age of receivable balances, the customer’s financial condition and current economic trends, all of which are subject to change. Actual uncollected amounts have historically been consistent with the Company’s expectations. The Company’s payment terms on its receivables from franchisees are generally 30 days.

The following table provides a reconciliation of the activity related to the Company’s accounts receivable, other receivables and notes receivable allowance for credit losses:




Accounts receivable



Other receivables



Notes receivable





Balance at January 1, 2020

















Bad debt expense recognized during the year
















Write-off of uncollectible amounts
















Balance at December 31, 2020

















Bad debt expense recognized during the year
















Write-off of uncollectible amounts
















Balance at December 31, 2021

















Bad debt expense (recovery) recognized during the year

















Write-off of uncollectible amounts
















Balance at December 31, 2022

















Shipping and handling fees Shipping and handling fees billed to customers are recorded in merchandise and equipment revenues. The costs associated with shipping goods to customers are included in costs of product revenue in the consolidated statements of operations.

Costs of franchise and service revenueCosts of franchise and service revenue consists of commissions related to the signing of franchise agreements, travel and personnel expenses related to the on-site training provided to the franchisees, and expenses related to the purchase of the technology packages and the related monthly fees. Costs of franchise and service revenue excludes depreciation and amortization.

Costs of product revenueCosts of product revenue consists of cost of equipment and merchandise and related freight charges. Costs of product revenue excludes depreciation and amortization.

Advertising costsAdvertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs are included in selling, general and administrative expenses. For the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Company had approximately $7,685, $6,890 and $5,409, respectively, of advertising costs, including amounts spent in excess of marketing fund revenue.

Selling, general and administrative expenses The Company’s selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses primarily consist of salaries and wages, sales and marketing expenses, professional and legal fees, occupancy expenses, management fees, travel expenses and conference expenses.

Marketing fund expensesMarketing fund expenses are recognized as incurred, and any marketing fund expenditures in excess of marketing fund revenue are reclassified as SG&A expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.

Acquisition and transaction expenses (income)Acquisition and transaction expenses (income) include costs directly related to the acquisition of businesses, which include expenditures for advisory, legal, valuation, accounting and similar services, in addition to amounts recorded for changes in contingent consideration (see Note 16).

Accrued expensesAccrued expenses consisted of the following:




December 31,









Accrued compensation









Contingent consideration from acquisitions, current portion









Sales tax accruals









Legal accruals









Accrued deemed dividend








Other accruals









Total accrued expenses










Comprehensive income – The Company does not have any components of other comprehensive income recorded within the consolidated financial statements and therefore does not separately present a consolidated statement of comprehensive income in the consolidated financial statements.

Fair value measurements – Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, applies to all financial assets and financial liabilities that are measured and reported on a fair value basis and requires disclosure that establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about fair value measurements. ASC 820 establishes a valuation hierarchy for disclosures of the inputs to valuations used to measure fair value.

This hierarchy prioritizes the inputs into three broad levels as follows:

Level 1 – Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that can be accessed at the measurement date.

Level 2 – Inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability (i.e., interest rates and yield curves), and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (market corroborated inputs).

Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that reflect assumptions about what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. These inputs would be based on the best information available, including the Company’s own data.

The Company’s financial instruments include cash, restricted cash, accounts receivable, notes receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and notes payable. The carrying amounts of these financial instruments approximates fair value due to their short maturities, proximity of issuance to the balance sheet date or variable interest rate.

Redeemable convertible preferred stock – The redeemable convertible preferred stock (the “Convertible Preferred”) becomes redeemable at the option of the holder as of a specific date unless an event that is not probable of occurring happens before that date. Therefore, the Company determined that it is probable that the Convertible Preferred will become redeemable based on the passage of time. The Company has elected to recognize changes in the redemption value immediately as they occur and adjust the carrying amount of the instrument to equal the redemption value at the end of each reporting period.

Noncontrolling interests – Noncontrolling interests represent the economic interests of XPO LLC held by Class B common stockholders. Income or loss is attributed to the noncontrolling interests based on the weighted average LLC interests outstanding during the period. The noncontrolling interests' ownership percentage can fluctuate over time as the Class B common stockholders elect to exchange their shares of Class B common stock for Class A common stock.

In December 2021, the Company and the Continuing Pre-IPO LLC Members amended the LLC agreement where the redemption option in cash was removed, except to the extent the cash proceeds to be used to make the redemption in cash are immediately available and were directly raised from a secondary offering of Company's equity securities. The redeemable noncontrolling interest was adjusted to its fair value as of such date and recorded in equity as noncontrolling interest.

Earnings (loss) per share – Basic earnings (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the earnings (loss) attributable to Class A common stockholders by the number of weighted-average shares of Class A common stock outstanding. Shares of Class B common stock do not share in the earnings of the Company and are therefore not participating securities. As such, separate presentation of basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share of Class B common stock under the two-class method has not been presented.

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the basic earnings per share calculation for the potential dilutive impact of common shares such as equity awards using the treasury-stock method. Diluted earnings per share considers the impact of potentially dilutive securities except in periods in which there is a loss because the inclusion of the potential common shares would have an anti-dilutive effect. Shares of Class B common stock are considered potentially dilutive shares of Class A common stock; however, related amounts have been excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share of Class A common stock because the effect would have been anti-dilutive under the if-converted and two-class methods.

Prior to the IPO, XPO LLC had one class of membership interest which was held by the Member. Earnings per share data is not provided in the consolidated financial statements for periods prior to the IPO as XPO LLC was a single-member limited liability company with only one unit.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, basic net loss per share has been calculated by dividing net loss attributable to Class A common stockholders for the period subsequent to the Reorganization Transactions, by the weighted average number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding for the same period. Shares of Class A common stock are weighted for the portion of the period in which the shares were outstanding.

Income taxes – The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities (“DTAs” and “DTLs”) for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, the Company determines DTAs and DTLs on the basis of the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities by using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on DTAs and DTLs is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company recognizes DTAs to the extent that it believes that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, carryback potential if permitted under the tax law, and results of recent operations. If the Company determines that it would be able to realize DTAs in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, an adjustment to the DTA valuation allowance would be made, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.

The Company records uncertain tax positions in accordance with ASC Topic 740 on the basis of a two-step process in which the Company (1) determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. The Company does not have any uncertain tax positions. The Company recognizes potential interest and penalties, if any, related to income tax matters in income tax expense. The Company incurred $1, $0 and $0 in interest and penalties for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Recently adopted accounting pronouncements

Accounting for leases – On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” utilizing the effective date method for the initial application. Under Topic 842, the Company elected the package of practical expedients to not reassess (1) the classification of existing leases, (2) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases and (3) initial direct costs for any existing leases. The Company did not elect the practical expedient pertaining to land easements, as it is not applicable to its leases. Additionally, the Company did not elect to use the practical expedient that permits a reassessment of lease terms for existing leases using hindsight. The Company's lease agreements generally contain lease and non-lease components. Non-lease components primarily include payments for common area maintenance. The Company applied the practical expedient as an accounting policy for classes of underlying assets that have fixed payments for non-lease components, to not separate non-lease components from lease components and instead to account for them together as a single lease component, which increases the amount of lease assets and corresponding liabilities. The Company has certain insignificant short-term leases with an initial term of twelve months or less that are not recorded in the consolidated balance sheets.

As a result of the adoption of Topic 842, the consolidated financial statements for 2022 are presented under the new standard, while the comparative periods presented are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company's historical accounting policy. This standard requires all lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, for all leases with a term greater than 12 months. The adoption of the new lease standard had a significant impact on the Company's consolidated balance sheets due to the recognition of $17,597 of right-of-use assets for operating leases and a corresponding lease obligation of $21,826 on January 1, 2022. The adoption of Topic 842 did not have a material impact on the Company's lease classification or on its statements of operations and liquidity. See Note 9, for information regarding the Company's adoption of Topic 842 and the Company's undiscounted future lease payments and the timing of those payments.

Accounting for leases prior to January 1, 2022 under ASC 840 –The Company recognizes rent expense related to leased space on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The difference between rent expense and rent paid, if any, as a result of lease incentives is recorded as deferred rent in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.

Recently issued accounting pronouncements

The Company qualifies as an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements and is relieved of certain other significant requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company the JOBS Act permits the Company an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards affecting public companies. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period.

Credit Losses In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326).” The standard introduces a new model for recognizing credit losses on financial instruments based on an estimate of current expected credit losses and will apply to trade and notes receivables. The new guidance will be effective for the Company’s annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company will adopt the new accounting standard on January 1, 2023. The adoption of this accounting standard will not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

Reference Rate Reform In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting.” ASU 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by the expected transition away from reference rates that are expected to be discontinued, such as LIBOR. ASU 2020-04 was effective upon issuance. In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-06, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848.” ASU 2022-06 defers the sunset date of Topic 848 from December 31, 2022, to December 31, 2024, after which entities will no longer be permitted to apply the relief in Topic 848. ASU 2022-06 was effective upon issuance. The application of this accounting standard will not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

Business Combinations – In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, "Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers." ASU 2021-08 primarily addresses the recognition and measurement of acquired revenue contracts with customers at the date of and after a business combination. The amendment improves comparability by specifying for all acquired revenue contracts regardless of their timing of payment (1) the circumstances in which the acquirer should recognize contract assets and contract liabilities that are acquired in a business combination and (2) how to measure those contract assets and contract liabilities. This results in better comparability for revenue contracts with customers acquired in a business combination and revenue contracts with customers not acquired in a business combination. ASU 2021-08 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this accounting standard, effective January 1, 2023, will not have an impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.