Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Segment information –The Company operates in one reportable and operating segment. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company did not generate material international revenues and as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company did not have material assets located outside of the United States.
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash – The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents.
The Company has marketing fund restricted cash, which can only be used for activities that promote the Company’s brands. Restricted cash was $1,139 and $999 at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts – Accounts receivable primarily consist of amounts due from franchisees and vendors. These receivables primarily relate to royalties, advertising contributions, equipment and product sales, training, vendor commissions and other miscellaneous charges. Receivables are unsecured; however, the franchise agreements provide the Company the right to withdraw funds from the franchisee’s bank account or to terminate the franchise for nonpayment. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable balance and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a number of factors, including evidence of the franchisee’s ability to comply with credit terms, economic conditions and historical receivables. Account balances are written off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $2,691 and $2,405, respectively.
Deferred offering costs – Deferred offering costs, primarily consisted of legal, accounting and other fees relating to the Company’s initial public offering. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had capitalized $4,429 of deferred offering costs within prepaid expenses and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Upon consummation of the IPO in July 2021, total deferred offering costs of $7,650 were reclassified as additional paid-in capital within stockholders' equity and recorded against the proceeds of the IPO.
Accrued expenses – Accrued expenses consisted of the following:
Comprehensive income – The Company does not have any components of other comprehensive income recorded within the consolidated financial statements and therefore does not separately present a consolidated statement of comprehensive income in the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Fair value measurements – ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, applies to all financial assets and financial liabilities that are measured and reported on a fair value basis and requires disclosure that establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about fair value measurements. ASC 820 establishes a valuation hierarchy for disclosures of the inputs to valuations used to measure fair value.
This hierarchy prioritizes the inputs into three broad levels as follows:
Level 1 – Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that can be accessed at the measurement date.
Level 2 – Inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability (i.e., interest rates and yield curves), and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (market corroborated inputs).
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that reflect assumptions about what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. These inputs would be based on the best information available, including the Company’s own data.
The Company’s financial instruments include cash, restricted cash, accounts receivable, notes receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and notes payable. The carrying amounts of these financial instruments approximates fair value due to their short maturities.
Redeemable convertible preferred stock – The Convertible Preferred becomes redeemable at the option of the holder as of a specific date unless an event that is not probable of occurring happens before that date. Therefore, the Company determined that it is probable that the Convertible Preferred will become redeemable based on the passage of time. The Company has elected to recognize changes in the redemption value immediately as they occur and adjust the carrying amount of the instrument to equal the redemption value at the end of each reporting period.
Redeemable noncontrolling interests – Redeemable noncontrolling interests represent the economic interests of XPO LLC held by Class B common stockholders. Income or loss is attributed to the redeemable noncontrolling interests based on the weighted average LLC interests outstanding during the period. The redeemable noncontrolling interests' ownership percentage can fluctuate over time as the Class B common stockholders elect to exchange their shares of Class B common stock for Class A common stock.
Earnings (loss) per share – Basic earnings (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the earnings (loss) attributable to Class A common stockholders by the number of weighted-average shares of Class A common stock outstanding. Shares of Class B common stock do not share in the earnings or losses of the Company and are therefore not participating securities. As such, separate presentation of basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share of Class B common stock under the two-class method has not been presented.
Diluted earnings (loss) per share adjusts the basic earnings (loss) per share calculation for the potential dilutive impact of common shares such as equity awards using the treasury-stock method. Diluted earnings (loss) per share considers the impact of potentially dilutive securities except in periods in which there is a loss because the inclusion of the potential common shares would have an anti-dilutive effect. Shares of Class B common stock are considered potentially dilutive shares of Class A common stock; however, related amounts have been excluded from the computation of diluted earnings (loss) per share of Class A common stock because the effect would have been anti-dilutive under the if-converted and two-class methods.
Prior to the IPO, XPO LLC had one class of membership interest which was held by the Member. Earnings per share data is not provided in the condensed consolidated financial statements for periods prior to the IPO as XPO LLC was a single-member limited liability company with only one unit.
Income taxes – The Company is the managing member of XPO Holdings and, as a result, consolidates the financial results of XPO Holdings in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. XPO Holdings is a pass-through entity for U.S. federal and most applicable state and local income tax purposes following a corporate reorganization effected in connection with the IPO. As an entity classified as a partnership for tax purposes, XPO Holdings is not subject to U.S. federal and certain state and local income taxes. Any taxable income or loss generated by XPO Holdings is passed through to and included in the taxable income or loss of its members, including the Company. The Company is taxed as a corporation and pays corporate federal, state and local taxes with respect to income allocated from XPO Holdings, based on our 51.0% economic interest in XPO Holdings.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities (“DTAs” and “DTLs”) for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, the Company determines DTAs and DTLs on the basis of the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities by using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on DTAs and DTLs is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company recognizes DTAs to the extent that it believes that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, carryback potential if permitted under the tax law, and results of recent operations. If the Company determines that it would be able to realize DTAs in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, an adjustment to the DTA valuation allowance would be made, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
The Company records uncertain tax positions in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 740 on the basis of a two-step process in which the Company (1) determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. The Company does not have any uncertain tax positions.
Tax Receivable Agreement – The Company expects to obtain an increase in its share of tax basis in the net assets of XPO Holdings when Class B units are exchanged by the holders of Class B units for shares of Class A common stock of the Company and upon certain qualifying transactions. Each change in outstanding shares of Class A common stock of the Company results in a corresponding change in the Company's ownership of Class A units of XPO Holdings. The Company intends to treat any exchanges of Class B units as direct purchases of LLC interests for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These increases in tax basis may reduce the amounts that XPO Inc. would otherwise pay in the future to various taxing authorities. They may also decrease gains (or increase losses) on future dispositions of certain capital assets to the extent tax basis is allocated to those capital assets.
In connection with the IPO, the Company entered into a TRA with the TRA Parties. In the event that such parties exchange any or all of their Class B units for Class A common stock, the TRA requires the Company to make payments to such holders for 85% of the tax benefits realized, or in some cases deemed to be realized, by the Company by such exchange as a result of (i) certain favorable tax attributes acquired from the Blocker Companies in the Mergers (including net operating losses and the Blocker Companies’ allocable share of existing tax basis), (ii) increases in the Company's allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that
may result from (x) the IPO Contribution and the Class A-5 Unit Redemption, (y) future taxable redemptions and exchanges of LLC Units by Continuing Pre-IPO LLC Members and (z) certain payments made under the TRA, and (iii) deductions attributable to imputed interest pursuant to the TRA (the “TRA Payments”). The annual tax benefits are computed by calculating the income taxes due, including such tax benefits, and the income taxes due without such benefits. The Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any tax benefits that it may actually realize. The TRA Payments are not conditioned upon any continued ownership interest in XPO Holdings or the Company. To the extent that the Company is unable to timely make payments under the TRA for any reason, such payments generally will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid.
The timing and amount of aggregate payments due under the TRA may vary based on a number of factors, including the amount and timing of the taxable income the Company generates each year and the tax rate then applicable. The Company calculates the liability under the TRA using a complex TRA model, which includes an assumption related to the fair market value of assets. The payment obligations under the TRA are obligations of XPO Inc. and not of XPO Holdings. Payments are generally due under the TRA within a specified period of time following the filing of the Company’s tax return for the taxable year with respect to which the payment obligation arises, although interest on such payments will begin to accrue at a rate of LIBOR plus 100 basis points from the due date (without extensions) of such tax return.
The TRA provides that if (i) certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations, or other changes of control were to occur, (ii) there is a material breach of any material obligations under the TRA; or (iii) the Company elects an early termination of the TRA, then the TRA will terminate and the Company's obligations, or the Company's successor’s obligations, under the TRA will accelerate and become due and payable, based on certain assumptions, including an assumption that the Company would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize all potential future tax benefits that are subject to the TRA and that any Class B units that have not been exchanged are deemed exchanged for the fair market value of the Company's Class A common stock at the time of termination.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements –
Accounting for income taxes – In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU No. 2019-02, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Account for Income Taxes.” The FASB issued this update as part of its simplification initiative to improve areas of GAAP and reduce cost and complexity while maintaining usefulness. The main provisions include the removal of the exception to the incremental approach of intra-period tax allocation when there is a loss from continuing operations and income or gain from other items, the exception to the general methodology for calculating in an interim period when the year-to-date loss exceeds anticipated loss for the year, and requiring that an entity recognize a franchise tax that is partially based on income as an income-based tax and account for any incremental amount incurred as a non-income-based tax.
ASU 2019-12 is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2020, for public business entities (“PBE”). The Company has adopted ASU 2019-12 for the quarter ended September 30, 2021, its first quarter as a PBE. However, there was no cumulative effect to be recognized upon adoption.
Debt – In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, “Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40).” ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for certain convertible instruments, amends guidance on derivative scope exceptions for contracts in an entity’s own equity and modifies the guidance on diluted earnings per share calculations as a result of these changes. ASU 2020-06 will take effect for public entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods with those fiscal years. As permitted by the standard, the Company has elected to early adopt this standard in January of 2021 with no impact upon adoption.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements –
Accounting for leases – In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” This new topic, which supersedes “Leases (Topic 840),” applies to all entities that enter into a contract that is or contains a lease, with some specified scope exemptions. This new standard requires lessees to evaluate whether a lease is a finance lease using criteria similar to those a lessee uses under current accounting guidance to determine whether it has a capital lease. Leases that do not meet the criteria for classification as finance leases by a lessee are to be classified as operating leases.
Under the new standard, for each lease classified as an operating lease, lessees are required to recognize on the balance sheet: (i) a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset representing the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term; and (ii) a lease liability for the
obligation to make lease payments over the lease term. Lessees can make an accounting policy election, by class of underlying asset, to not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for leases with a lease term of 12 months or less as long as the leases do not include options to purchase the underlying assets that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise. This standard also requires an entity to disclose key information (both qualitative and quantitative) about the entity’s leasing arrangements. Upon adoption, entities are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach, which includes a number of optional practical expedients that entities may elect to apply. Management is currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-05, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and Leases (Topic 842),” which defers the effective date of Leases (Topic 842) to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022.
Credit Losses – In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326).” The standard introduces a new model for recognizing credit losses on financial instruments based on an estimate of current expected credit losses and will apply to trade receivables. The new guidance will be effective for the Company’s annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the standard on the consolidated financial statements.
Reference Rate Reform – In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting.” ASU 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by the expected transition away from reference rates that are expected to be discontinued, such as LIBOR. ASU 2020-04 was effective upon issuance. The Company may elect to apply the guidance prospectively through December 31, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the standard on the consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef