Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes and Tax Receivable Agreement

Income Taxes and Tax Receivable Agreement
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Deferred Income Taxes and Tax Credits [Abstract]  
Income Taxes and Tax Receivable Agreement

Note 14 – Income Taxes and Tax Receivable Agreement

The Company is the managing member of XPO Holdings and, as a result, consolidates the financial results of XPO Holdings in the condensed consolidated financial statements. XPO Holdings is a pass-through entity for U.S. federal and most applicable state and local income tax purposes following a corporate reorganization effected in connection with the IPO. As an entity classified as a partnership for tax purposes, XPO Holdings is not subject to U.S. federal and certain state and local income taxes. Any taxable income or loss generated by XPO Holdings is passed through to and included in the taxable income or loss of its members, including the Company. The Company is taxed as a corporation and pays corporate federal, state and local taxes with respect to income allocated from XPO Holdings, based on its 66% economic interest in XPO Holdings.

The provision for income taxes differs from the amount of income tax computed by applying the applicable U.S. statutory federal income tax rate of 21% to income (loss) before income taxes due to XPO Holdings’ pass-through structure for U.S. income tax purposes, state taxes, preferred stock dividends, non-deductible expenses, change in fair value of contingent consideration and the valuation allowance against the deferred tax asset. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 is 1% and 12%, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized income tax benefit of $123 and $2,067 on its share of pre-tax book income (loss), exclusive of the noncontrolling interest of 34%.

As of March 31, 2023, management determined based on applicable accounting standards and the weight of all available evidence, it was not more likely than not (“MLTN”) that the Company will generate sufficient taxable income to realize its deferred tax assets including the difference in tax basis in excess of the financial reporting value for its investment in XPO Holdings. Consequently, the Company has established a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets as of March 31, 2023. In the event that management subsequently determines that it is MLTN that the Company will realize its deferred tax assets in the future over the recorded amount, a decrease to the valuation allowance will be made, which will reduce the provision for income taxes.

The Company is subject to taxation and files income tax returns in the United States federal jurisdiction, many state and foreign jurisdictions. The Company is not currently under examination by income tax authorities in federal, state or other jurisdictions. The Company’s tax returns remain open for examination in the U.S for years 2019 through 2022. The Company's foreign subsidiaries are generally subject to examination three years following the year in which the tax obligation originated. The years subject to audit may be extended if the entity substantially understates corporate income tax.

The Company does not expect a significant change in unrecognized tax benefits during the next 12 months.

Tax Receivable Agreement – In connection with the IPO, the Company entered into a Tax Receivable Agreement (“TRA”) pursuant to which the Company is generally required to pay to the other parties thereto in the aggregate 85% of the amount of cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that the Company actually realizes as a result of (i) certain favorable tax attributes acquired from the Blocker Companies in the Mergers (including net operating losses and the Blocker Companies’ allocable share of existing tax basis), (ii) increases in the Company's allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that resulted or may result from (x) the IPO Contribution and the Class A-5 Unit Redemption, (y) future taxable redemptions and exchanges of LLC Units by Continuing Pre-IPO LLC Members and (z) certain payments made under the TRA, and (iii) deductions attributable to imputed interest pursuant to the TRA (the “TRA Payments”). The Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any tax benefits that it may actually realize. The TRA Payments are not conditioned upon any continued ownership interest in XPO Holdings or the Company. To the extent that the Company is unable to timely make payments under the TRA for any reason, such payments generally will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid.

The timing and amount of aggregate payments due under the TRA may vary based on a number of factors, including the amount and timing of the taxable income the Company generates each year and the tax rate then applicable. The Company calculates the liability under the TRA using a complex TRA model, which includes an assumption related to the fair market value of assets. The payment obligations under the TRA are obligations of XPO Inc. and not of XPO Holdings. Payments are generally due under the TRA within a specified period of time following the filing of the Company’s tax return for the taxable year with respect to which the payment obligation arises, although interest on such payments will begin to accrue at a rate of LIBOR plus 100 basis points from the due date (without extensions) of such tax return.

The TRA provides that if (i) there is a material breach of any material obligations under the TRA; or (ii) the Company elects an early termination of the TRA, then the TRA will terminate and the Company's obligations, or the Company's successor’s obligations, under the TRA will accelerate and become due and payable, based on certain assumptions, including an assumption that the Company would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize all potential future tax benefits that are subject to the TRA and that any LLC Units that have not been exchanged are deemed exchanged for the fair market value of the Company's Class A common stock at the time of termination. The TRA also provides that, upon certain mergers, asset sales or other forms of business combination, or certain other changes of control, the TRA will not terminate but the Company’s or the Company’s successor’s obligations with respect to tax benefits would be based on certain assumptions, including that the Company or the Company’s successor would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits covered by the TRA.

As of March 31, 2023, the Company has concluded, based on applicable accounting standards, that it was more likely than not that its deferred tax assets subject to the TRA would not be realized. Therefore, the Company has not recorded a liability related to the tax savings it may realize from utilization of such deferred tax assets. Except for $1,163 and $1,356 of the current and non-current portions of the TRA, respectively, $93,429 of the TRA liability was not recorded as of March 31, 2023. If utilization of the deferred tax asset subject to the TRA becomes more likely than not in the future, the Company will record a liability related to the TRA which will be recognized as expense within its consolidated statements of operations.